Lindsay Lohan, doing a cracked-out magazine photo shoot

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From Radar
Other Linnocent news: she announced on a radio show that she is currently boycotting Glee: “I don’t watch Glee. They have made a load of snarky remarks about me. I don’t know why.”
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Maybe they make fun of her because she’s a humorless, crackheaded sociopath CHILD?!? What’s weird is that I TOTALLY believe that Linnocent has literally NO IDEA why someone would mock her or make fun of her. In her own delusional mind, she’s incredibly awesome.
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    Lindsay Lohan certainly isn’t shy about flashing a little skin!

    The troubled actress left little to the imagination on Saturday as she stripped off in the moist Miami heat for a photo shoot for Plum Miami Magazine.
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    Lindsay, 24, showed off her assets as she posed wearing a trendy nude colored swimsuit.
    The Mean Girls star jetted there from Los Angeles Friday morning for what’s expected to be her last trip before she is scheduled to surrender to authorities. She is to serve a two-week incarceration after pleading no contest to a theft charge.
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    The Miami Beach shoot is to accompany an in-depth interview for the magazine’s July issue.

    Earlier Saturday, Lohan was spotted smoking on the balcony of her penthouse hotel room and enjoying the sunshine.

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Toyota Cars Collection 2011

Toyota car collection 2011 we present to you, we are attempting to collect accurate information that we collect from various sources.

Toyota is the third largest automobile manufacturer in the world in unit sales and net sales. Japan's largest manufacturer is producing 5.5 million cars worldwide. If calculated, this figure is equivalent to produce 1 unit of car in 6 seconds.

To learn about the history of toyota  history please visit Toyota Company History

Okay now let us refer to the description of toyota car collection 2011

Toyota Sienna

Toyota Sienna Car comes with a variety of series: LE, SE, XLE, and Limited edition AWD. Exterior and interior are equipped with reliable and smooth run-flat tire has been introduced at the Expo Car Los Angeles recently. Favorite car in the United States in particular, now has entered the third generation in a series of manufacture.

This car is full of entertainment relies on its ability to deliver on time we're in it, and put the comfort factor. Sienna New Model 2011 also as a factor of attraction to lure fans. Innovation is also carried on his 4-cylinder engine more efficient.

Contemporary and popular model that still give priority to road safety for drivers and passengers. All of Toyota's advanced features also lauched in this car.


Toyota Hilux

Toyota Hilux which include best-selling car since the launch in several countries. Cars with big power and steady performance as well as spare parts guarantee affordable both in terms of price and availability. Average users are very satisfied and no complaints when wearing the Toyota Hilux as his choice.

In their daily life, performance Hilux is very practical, not fussy, stubborn, where these things are important factors for the automobile traveler. This car also has a sturdy design, perfect for a family member. Outside view is also supported steady with a luxurious interior in it.

Toyota Vitz

Toyota Vitz re-design with the performance of compact hatchback will again hit the Japanese market in 2011.

This car is equipped with ultra-resistant glass and features redesigned exterior and interior. The model is generally longer with a more spacious interior settings.

In addition to redesigning the exterior and interior, Toyota's latest product comes with an affordable price and best quality kulaitas from Toyota. With a specification that dibesutnya, Toyota Vitz appear as efficient car. Even one that carried the motto of this car is as the Most Efficient Cars in Japan. The launch of Toyota Vitz at small MPV class or sub-compact class, makes the best cars sebmakin tight competition.

Selection of color for this car is also very complete, from the conservative colors like black or white, to color-metallic pink or bright yellow. Kombinsi car fit for stylish young professionals. New Cars Toyota Vitz is available in several types of options with HP than 1000cc and 1500cc and 1300CC. Toyota appears and is always present to realize the dream car of the fans and the community generally.


Toyota RAV4 EV

Car 2011 Toyota RAV4 EV with the support of Tesla seems to be one of Toyota's new flagship in the world automobile market through 2011. First devoted to areas of North America, this car has been exhibited in an exhibition venue in Los Angeles some time ago.

The concept car with sophisticated electrical panels capable of making an exclusive feel of this car. In 2011 the car was manufactured dengna limited numbers, while for mass production planned to be lauched in 2012. Toyota RAV4 EV will also be marketed in other countries than in America. From the look of his prototype, luxurious look and kokh a first impression so see it.

Toyota RAV4 EV is believed to be able to hit the electric car market and become one of the major players in this class. With still a long time for evaluation and input for this car, it seemed his presence will be more eagerly awaited by fans of electric cars and Toyota as well as lovers of innovative cars on umumnya.Saksikan continue its development with Toyota's latest news on this blog.

Toyota FT-86

Concept Sports Cars continue to be developed by Toyota One of them with the development of the Toyota FT-86. Despite launching a plan to be postponed in 2013, this car remains a concern among automotive today. Carrying the concept sports car, the latest developments is to wear the new logo.

The new logo along with a few changes from earlier versions of the concept. This car is the join of two well-known car manufacturers, Toyota and Subaru. For Subaru, better known by the name of the Subaru 0846. With a boxer engine and the body flat and lightweight autodinamis, this car appear attractive as the ideal sports car. Performance that produce a full driving pleasure sensation.

Toyota FT-86 will be produced for the public in 2013 after previously planned dilucurkan in 2012. Still to be considered whether to stay called the Toyota FT-86, where FT stands for Future rumors Toyota, (while "86" in Japan is pronounced "hachi roku") or a Toyota FR-S (Front-rear sport). Stay at the World Automotive Collection to follow the development of the Toyota FT-86 further.

Toyota IQ

Toyota IQ concept car with a compact and ideal, is introduced as one of most small cars in the world with a model 4 seats with the best quality of this Toyota.Mobil been very successful on its release in Japan.

Toyota IQ Toyota MPV from a source of inspiration for future car needs a compact but full of quality features. Interior like disco music that makes the trip was not boring and full of entertainment. The solution to congestion and pollution today. Interior is a little relieved and shape appropriate for a prototype fusion concept vehicle needs of the future.

The cutesy reliable Toyota-made this really unique concept and is able to seize the attention of automotive circles. Automobile market following years is likely to be dominated by this kind of vehicle.

Toyota Avalon

Toyota Avalon is one of the popular car in America. With its roomy, this car could make people on board relief. Comfort and reliability factor is the main point of the hallmarks of this car. Sedan with a capacity of 4 passengers is made with comfortable as possible and also relieved that the driver and passenger, both in front and behind the withdrawal was resting comfortably.

2011 Toyota Avalon suggested as supporting entertainment factor performance. Entertainment classy and stylish. Appearances refreshing and inspiring. It also can be used for long distance travel. Standard specification outline is as follows: 3.5L V-6 268HP engine, 6-speed automatic transmission with overdrive, 4-wheel anti-lock brakes (ABS).

Factors interior is also a concern. Many interior of the car that was equipped with sophisticated gadgets and technology. Steady steering and anti-skid and elegant design are the factors why its users are interested. Use of the panels easy to use, simple but good quality. Some components of this car is identical to the famous Lexus quality. Safe vehicle for the needs of all eligible family members carried the Toyota Avalon 2011.

Toyota Sequoia

Toyota Sequoia is an SUV made by Toyota Motor Manufacturing Indiana. Some models are outstanding: Sequoia SR5, Sequoia Limited; Sequoia Platinum 2011. This car in its class for one car at a price affordable to purchase. The car the best option for families and consumers who want a big car with spacious accommodation for families and a variety of needs.

Sequoia was also fresh exterior appearance with a few new accessories art. Since its introduction in 2000, this car remained in production until now with the output of the newest Toyota Sequoia 2011. His off-road ability will no doubt because Toyota as the world's largest car manufacturer is very reliable for this business.

Capacity passenger in the car can accommodate up to 8 family members. This is supported by a safety factor to ensure maximum driving safety. Automatic transmission is also supporting the overall quality performance. If you want to travel far, Toyota Sequoia is ready to deliver your trip without feeling bored and tired on the trip. Reputation quality car Toyota will once again be proven.

Toyota Tundra Truck 2011


2011 Toyota Truck Tundra full-size truck from Toyota's best car line with the new engine is more efficient in its use. Several new versions were also launched with the specifications of each as needed. Concept promoted by this car is a Diesel Dually Project Truck.

Innovations according to the development of time was also done on the Tundra. Toyota Tundra automotive producer variant of this for the year of 2011 has increased the power of HP in this car with 4.0 liter V6 standard engine. More sporty appearance, making them attractive to various groups based on the model as well function.

Toyota Tundra is also tough to follow the race rally cars and off-road competition. This is a proof of public confidence in the car this big category. Vehicle dashing adventurer with the model is a mix of interesting and always a lot of rage. Toyota Tundra Sportsman seem to be an ideal choice of one car in 2011.


Toyota Tacoma

Cars Trucks Toyota Tacoma is a compact and effective model. This car is already produced two generations and still continues to this day. This car is suitable for heavy jobs jobs in the mines, forests and other contractors who need a car with formidable performance.

Tacoma continues to innovate year after year. Improvements also continue to be done for the sake of perfection mesin.Pengembangan acceleration of innovation is continued even today with the launch of Tacoma Truck 2011. Several models to choose from are: Regular cab, Access Cab and Double Cab.

One of the latest innovations from Tacoma is by cooperating with the iPad. Tacoma equipped with sophisticated gadgets Interior IPAD is certainly one another attraction of this car. In America even a car with the largest sales category for Compact Pickup Trucks. With these improvements, no doubt Toyota established itself as the best ideal car manufacturer in Indonesia and in the world.


Toyota Venza · 2011

Toyota Venza · 2011 is a showcase of Toyota's next work is surprising, because so much innovation performed and introduced by the car to its users. Toyota Venza is an offering to the family the best result of the integration of a variety of favorite characters. Toyota Venza Appearances can be proud wearer with fantastic performances captivate nan.

This product is predicted to increase in demand for all weather and atmosphere. After menuasai American market, the ideal car is expected to also triumphed in the world automobile market. Views aggressive nuanced performance with strict lines with large cabin so it is suitable to store the goods with comfortable and safe.

Car 2011 Toyota Venza comes with a full-confident and exclusive with typical Toyota engine ensures powerful performance endurance pull. Toyota Venza continuing triumph of this manufacturer and do not forget to follow the trend of fast growing Indonesian car. The best opportunity for performance with its motto of "The Surprising New Toyota".


Toyota Rush

Suspension of Bending and Steady Rush. Electric mirror bending. It all depends on how caring for the Toyota Rush to remain robust, resilient and efficient. Equipped with manual mode so that the performance is really to perfection.

Interior and accessories TV monitor to watch Live TV or DVD. This monitor also has integrated. Performance Toyota Rush comfort and security with the right rim racing facilities. Carrying the unit with the best and ideal test drive captivating. Rush offers a comfortable seat with an exotic design with interior dashboard view its beautiful.

Economical fuel consumption with the factory default standard security system has been quite satisfactory. While at the street corner or straight hot mix everything well. Toyota's latest Rush performing with some changes to the front and a rear bumper. The latest generation to the sensation of driving. Toyota Rush Facelift.

Sources : Automotive Collection

Airbus the commercial aircraft

Airbus S.A.S. is the commercial aircraft manufacturer based in Toulouse, France. The company was founded in 2001 under French law as a joint stock company that watered down or "SAS" (Société par Actions Simplifiée).

Airbus is jointly held by EADS (80%) and BAE Systems (20%), the two largest military suppliers and manufacturers. Also known first name of Airbus Industrie, or Airbus.

Airbus employs around 40,000 people in several European countries. Final assembly is carried out in Toulouse, France and Hamburg, Germany, although the construction carried out in several factories in Europe.

History

Airbus Industrie began as a consortium of European aviation firms to compete with American companies like Boeing and McDonnell Douglas. Formed in 1970 after the agreement between Aerospatiale (France) and Deutsche Aerospace (Germany) (followed by CASA (Spain) in 1971) to develop the Airbus A300, which first flew in 1972.

In 1979 British Aerospace (now BAE SYSTEMS) joined with Airbus. With 38% of shares respectively held by Germany and France, 20% held by Britain and Spain holds 4%.

At first a loose alliance but this changed in 2000 when DASA, and CASA to form EADS join and 2001 when BAE and EADS formed the Airbus Integrated Company to develop the A380, which is a plane with 555 passengers and the largest aircraft in the world's largest commercial at the start operate in 2006. The A380 was launched on January 18, 2005.

Airbus A380

when the first plane built and flown the aircraft continues to be made mengangkasa size bigger. in 1950 Boeing 707 that produces large. then in 1970, Boeing launched the Boeing 747 manufacturing and larger again. In 2006, the aircraft giant "A380" new Flying .

A380 has four engines rolls-Royce Trent 900 provides 36,280 pounds of thrust or four turbofan egine alliance Gp 7200, with 37,003 kg of thrust.

The A380 has the standard version of the 854 seats for passengers, while the A380-900 has 1000 seats for passengers. above this plane there are shopping center, children's playground, and other facilities.

Airbus A340 Commercial Passengers Airplanes


Airbus A340 is a large commercial passenger aircraft manufactured by Airbus. It has a design similar to the type Airbus A330 but the A340 uses four engines are not just two like the A330. Intended to replace the previous generation aircraft like the Boeing 747 but this latest variants now compete with the Boeing 777. More than 370 A340 operated worldwide in September 2010.

Development

The first study published on the A340 which has the code 1981 TA11, which is shown in the magazine Air International edition in November (along with the appearance of the A300 in the same year at the Farnborough Airshow.) Image concept of A320 (SA 9) and A330 (TA9) also published, along with performance estimates made by Airbus Industrie. Airbus A340 last sent to Iberia in 2010.

A340 was launched in June 1987 as a complement to long-haul flights from short-haul aircraft A320 and A300 medium-range. At that time, a twin-engine Airbus aircraft have a weakness compared to aircraft such as Boeing 747 ETOPS problem which is defined as a rule: a twin-engine aircraft should remain at the farthest distance of 60 minutes daribandara alternative, which prevent them from competing in long distance flights over water. Furthermore, wide-bodied aircraft ETOPS qualified berpenumpang 250-300 seats, peaswat engined three DC-10 and L-1011, is aging, because it was entering the ministry since the early 1970s.

A340 is designed in parallel with the A330 twin-engine aircraft: two planes have the same wing and similar aircraft hull structure, and borrow almost keseliruhan avionics technology and composite structures developed for the A320. A330 and A340 are assembled together in the center of final assembly at Toulouse-Blagnac, France.

A340 is expected to use the new superfan engines made by International Aero Engines, but the development of the machine is stopped. Engine house of the superfan engine has enough space that allows the laying of a large fan at the rear of the machine. As a result of the superfan cancellation by IAE, CFM International CFM56-5C4 engine used as the sole option than to choose another alternative machines. A longer version, the A340-500 and -600, powered by Rolls-Royce Trent 500.

When the A340 make its debut in 1991, warned that the wings are not mechanically strong enough to carry the machine beyond the cruising speed tanpamembengkok and vibrate. To overcome this, a buffer under the wing of the so-called Plastron developed to fix airflow problems around the engine mountings and to add flexibility. A340 modification begin commercial service in 1993 with Lufthansa and Air France

In the 1990s, when airlines began looking for a replacement aircraft for the flight back to the 1970s made 747-100/200, Airbus studied extension of the framework to make the A340-400, which is planned over 70m long. This has become unpopular because of CFM56 engines limit the capability of growth and mileage will be reduced to 10,000 km (5399.6 nmi). When this plan was canceled, a larger wing and new engines decided kembinasi made. Initially, Pratt & Whitney to provide a proposal for a new machine, but the problem of contract makes Airbus chose Rolls-Royce Trent in 1997.

A340 flight control system is equipped with fly-by-wire digital. The aircraft also use the joystick dariapda side using the front wheel, with one stick on the left side and stick the other pilot on the right side of the co-pilot. A340 flight instruments are very similar to those owned by A320, and hiring pilots with the same rating with the A330. this allows the crew to fly the A320 A330/A340 flight and vice versa with minimal additional training. This saves costs for airlines that operate both types of aircraft. The cockpit uses a digital cockpit system using CRT display for aircraft A340-200 and A340-300 and now using screen liquid crystal display (LCD). some major structural composites are also used.

A340 is also the first commercial aircraft that allows passengers to use cell phones during flights. In March 2008 Emirates introduced a system that allows passengers to make calls using their cell phone. But they can not receive calls and the system is not available when the flight prophecy and during takeoff and landing.


Operational History

A340-300 entered service in 1993 with the first user is Lufthansa and Air France, followed soon thereafter by a version of the -200 and A330. With the introduction of a heavier aircraft Boeing 777, like 777-200ER and 777-300ER in particular, sales of the A340 begins to decline. In recent years the sale of 777 A340 has been defeated with a big difference. Although the GE90 engines larger 777-300ER uses far more fuel than the Trent 500, but by using only two compared to four Trent engine means providing between 8-9% cost savings.

In January 2006, Airbus announced plans to develop A340E unruk (Enhanced / Additional). Airbus states that A340E is more fuel efficient than the A340 and close early versions 8-9% difference with the Boeing 777 with Trent 1500 engines.
Airbus expects to produce 127 units A340 until the year 2016, and after that production will be stopped.

In mid 2008, with the increase in jet fuel prices doubled from a year earlier, the high consumption of fuel made the airline to stop flights A340 so far that has a travel time of more than 15 hours. Thai Airways International to cancel flights 17 hours non-stop from Bangkok to New York / JFK on July 1, 2008. All A340-500 aircraft eventually sold. When the flight distance dently gives the load on the plane rather than long-haul flights, and spend more fuel to take off and landing are more frequent, very long haul flights to make the aircraft should be fully charged with fuel, which means that, during the plane trip much material fuel to carry fuel, a "flying tanker with a few passengers in it" said the chief executive of Air France-KLM Pierre-Henri Gourgeon told the Wall Street Journal.

When Thai Airways to consistently fill 80% seats in NYC-Bangkok flight, it is estimated that the price of fuel in 2008, it takes 120% of seats filled to break even, where rights are not possible.

Other airlines also oversee re-distance flights. In August 2008, Cathay Pacific told the Wall Street Journal that the increase in fuel prices is very disturbing long-distance flights, and will reduce the number of such flights and offers as well as lowering the aircraft in flight with the shorter distances such as between Hong Kong and Australia. "We would ... reshape our network to ensure we fly aircraft to where it can cover operational costs and also provide benefits," said Cathay Pacific CEO Tony Tyler told the newspaper.

Variants

There are currently four variants of the A340. and A340-200 and A340-300 was launched in 1987 and began service in March 1993. A340-500 and A340-600 was launched in 1997 and began to enter airline service in 2002. All these variants are also available in the corporate version of the Executive and Private Aviation Airbus.

A340-200

One of two early versions of the A340, A340-200, with 261 passengers in three-class cabin look with the distance 7.450 nautical miles (13797.4 km), or with 240 passengers in three class configuration with a distance of 8.000 nautical miles (14 816 , 0 km) This is the shortest version of the aircraft and the only version with a wingspan greater than the length of the aircraft. The aircraft is powered by four CFMI CFM56-5C4 engines. This aircraft drencanakan to open lines long and thin, especially if passing the open sea. Closest competitor from Boeing for this aircraft was a Boeing 767-400.

One version of this type (called by Airbus as A340-8000) ordered by the Sultan of Brunei who want a flight distance as far as 8.000 nautical miles (14816.0 km). A340-8000 has a capacity of more fuel, with a maximum takeoff weight (MTOW) of 275 tonnes is equivalent to A340-300, and little change in the bottom. Once completed, obtain the maximum mileage as far as 8.100 nautical miles (15001.2 km). The aircraft is powered by 34,000 lbf-powered machine called CFMI CFM56-5C4-300E equivalent. Only one A340-8000 manufactured by Airbus A340-213X code (msn 204). The aircraft was delivered to the airline based in Brunei Sultan in November 1998, but never entered the ministry and neglected in the Lufthansa Technik in Hamburg. The aircraft was later bought by Saudi Arabian VIP in February 2007 as an additional wide-body fleet, according to flight data center Acas.

A340-200 aircraft other then given a performance that helped the development package has the ability equivalent to the A340-8000. The aircraft are labeled A340-213X. This version of the mileage reaches 8.000 NM (14.820 km).

Due to the large wingspan, four engines, low capacity, and the version of the A340-300, -200 version becomes difficult to accept and does not popular with major airlines. Only 28 A340-200, produced by some to be a VIP aircraft. South African Airways is the largest operator with 6 aircraft generally fly the route Cape Town. Another operator is Aerolíneas Argentinas (4), Royal Jordanian (4), Egypt Air (3) and Conviasa (1).

Some A340-200 is used for military or VIP keperluar. Examples used by the Royal Brunei Airlines, Qatar Amiri Flight, the Government of Egypt, the Air Force Saudi Arabia, Jordan and the French Air Force. The airline that once operated this aircraft is Cathay Pacific, Philippine Airlines, and Air Bourbon, along with other airlines. This version now has been discontinued.


A340-300

A340-300 flies 295 passengers in three-class cabin configuration with the distance as far as 6.700 nautical miles (12408.4 km). This aircraft is an early version, began flying on October 25, 1991, and entered airline service with Lufthansa and Air France in March 1993. The aircraft is powered by four CFMI CFM56-5C engines, equivalent to the version of 200s. The closest competitor is the Boeing 777-200ER.

A340-300E, often incorrectly referred to as A340-300x, have an increased MTOW of up to 275 tonnes and powered by a more powerful engine (34,000 lbf) CFMI CFM56-5C4. Range with 295 passengers was between 7.200 nautical miles (13334.4 km) up to 7.400 nautical miles (13704.8 km). Lufthansa's biggest operator with 30 aircraft. The aircraft was first delivered to Singapore Airlines in April 1996, but Singapore Airlines had not operate this model. Two A340-300 bought by the German Luftwaffe Flugbereitschaft from VIP transport to serve the German government leaders and the President of Germany. The aircraft will enter service in 2011.

A340-300 Enhanced is the latest version of this type and was first delivered in 2003 to South African Airways. The aircraft is using the latest engine CFM56-5C4 / P and avionics and fly-by-wire newly developed for A340-500/-600.

A340-300 already tidah produced again with the last of 218 aircraft A340-300 sent to a private airline from the island of Cayman Island named Klaret Aviation in September 2008, with the latest airline to receive this is a Finnair plane in July 2008. A340-300 will be followed by the A350-900

A340-500

A340-500 was introduced as a commercial passenger plane to reach the furthest distance in the world. This aircraft first flew on February 11, 2002, and certified on December 3, 2002 with initial pegiriman to the Emirates. If the KC-10 Extender is a production aircraft with the farthest range, the A340-500 is a commercial plane with the farthest range until the introduction of Boeing 777-200LR in February 2006. A340-500 can fly 313 passengers in three-class cabin configuration as far as 8.650 nautical miles (16019.8 km), the aircraft is capable of flying non-stop from London to Perth, while flights in the opposite direction requires extra rest because of wind resistance.

Singapore Airlines, for example, initially using two-class configuration, 181-passenger flight to Newark-Singapore nonstop route, SQ 21: 18-hour travel time, 45-minutes to the west (actually to the north to save a distance of 70 nautical miles ( 129.6 km) through the north pole, then move to the south across Russia, Mongolia and China), and 18-hour, 30-minute eastward, with the distance 8.285 nautical miles (15343.8 km), which until now into the flight the world's longest scheduled commercial.

At the end of June 2008, Singapore Airlines completed the conversion of five A340-500 into a single business class configuration, with 100 seats, karen market demand. The aircraft is also used to route nonstop flights Los Angeles-Singapore SQ. Thai Airways International to use this model for nonstop flights from Bangkok to Los Angeles and New York / JFK, but stop service to New York on July 1, 2008 due to increased fuel prices. U.S. aviation magazine reported in late January 2010 that the Thai consider to reopen the route Bangkok-New York / JFK with a fleet of A340-500nya.

Route Los Angeles-Bangkok Thai is still in service. Armadac airlines in the form of four A340-500 would actually be sold, but due to low prices led to Thais pulled from the market in October 2008. Thai now use these aircraft for European lines thinner, such as Bangkok-Athens, However may sell them after receiving a reasonable price. Each aircraft is worth U.S. $ 180 million. A large airline flight to the Thai bid for each U.S. $ 50 million for a fleet of A340-500nya, who later rejected. Etihad Airways is the latest new user.

In the first A340-500 deliveries between airlines, TAM Airlines has hired two planes of Air Canada for use in São Paulo-Milan route. The aircraft will be moved to a new TAM route between São Paulo and Johannesburg apda financial year 2010. In addition, Nigerian airline Arik Air has purchased three A340-500 of Kingfisher Airlines. Kingfisher cancel one of five A340-500 aircraft orders in November 2009. In total there are 37 A340-500 which has been ordered by seven airlines, of which 6 diantarangan in VIP configuration for government service (including Qatar and Algeria) and private owners, with 31 deliveries in June 2010.

Compared with the A340-300, -500 version has a 4.3 meter longer hull, a larger wing area, significantly increase the fuel capacity (around 50% over -300), slightly higher cruising speed, larger rear wing and vertical tail smaller. A340-500/-600 has taxi cameras to help the pilot while maneuvering on land. A340-500 turbofan engine powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 553-powered 53 000 lbf.

A340-500HGW Version (English:''High Gross Weight / Weight empty large) has a mileage 9.000 nautical miles (16668.0 km) and MTOW of 380 tonnes and first flight on October 13, 2006. The aircraft uses a reinforced structure and increased fuel capacity in the A340-600HGW. Shipping inaugural flight will be given to Thai Airways International, on 11 April 2007 Kingfisher Airlines plans to use this type of aircraft to operate nonstop flights from India to North America. However, in October 2008, Kingfisher divert shipments of three of the five positions to Arik Air of Nigeria, due to global recession. Arik Air received three A340-500 in November 2008, and put the aircraft for the new route London Heathrow-Lagos and Lagos-Johannesburg route, with a nonstop flight to New York that ditambahnkan in January 2010. Atlanta, Miami and Houston are planned to be added later-500HGW A340 four-engine turbofan powered Rolls-Royce Trent 556 to power 56,000 lbf. Emirates is the largest operator with 10 aircraft.

Comparable Boeing 777-200LR is, which entered service in February 2006, through the A340-500 as a commercial passenger plane with the farthest distance, but the Boeing 777-200LR is plagued with ETOPS regulations.

A340-600

Designed as a substitute for early generation Boeing 747, A340-600 flies 380 passengers in three-class cabin configuration (419 in 2 classes) as far as 7.500 nautical miles (13890.0 km). This aircraft provides similar passenger capacity to 747 manun with a cargo of 25% larger, and lower travel costs for each seat. A340-600 maiden flight performed on April 23, 2001. Virgin Atlantic mwmulai commercial service in August 2002.

A340-600 is approximately 10 m longer than the -300, empta meters longer than the Boeing 747-400 and 2.3 meters longer than the A380. This aircraft became the longest commercial passenger aircraft until February 2010 with the inaugural flight of the Boeing 747-8. A340-600 turbofan engine powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 556-powered 56 000 lbf with Honeywell APU 331-600 [A] The aircraft also has tmbahan four rear wheels in the middle of the hull planes to be able to cope with increased MTOW. Airbus aircraft cabin empty upper floors to provide additional facilities such optional crew rest area, kitchen and toilet on the ground floor plane.

In April 2007, The Times reported that Airbus had advised carriers to reduce cargo at the front of the plane by 5 tonnes to cope with excess weight in first and business class sections. The addition of weight causes the aircraft center of gravity moves forward and reduces the efficiency of flight mileage. Airlines that are affected by these suggestions are considering demanding compensation from Airbus.

Version of the A340-600HGW (High Gross Weight / English: Gross Large) first flight on 18 November 2005 and certified on April 14 this 2006.Pesawat MTOW of 380 tonnes with the distance reaches 7.900 nautical miles (14630.8 km), which may be due to the strengthening of the structure, additional fuel capacity, more powerful engine and new manufacturing techniques such as laser welding. A340-600HGW turbofan engine powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 560-powered 60 000 lbf.

Version of the A340-600HGW (High Gross Weight / English: Gross Large) first flight on 18 November 2005 and certified on April 14, 2006. This aircraft has a MTOW of 380 tonnes with the distance reaches 7.900 nautical miles (14630.8 km), which may be due to the strengthening of the structure, additional fuel capacity, more powerful engine and new manufacturing techniques such as laser welding. A340-600HGW turbofan engine powered by four Rolls-Royce Trent 560-powered 60 000 lbf.

Emirates became the first user-600HGW version when ordering 18 planes at Paris Air Show 2003; but then postponed and eventually canceled the order. Rivals, Qatar Airways, which place an order on the same aerospace exhibition, only received four aircraft with first flight on 11 September 2006. This happened because they let their options orders expired.

The aircraft made by Boeing of the most equivalent to A340-600 aircraft is a 777-300ER.A340-600 will soon be replaced by A350-1000, which also will compete with the 777-300ER.

In March 2010 a British aviation magazine reported that Virgin Atlantic Airways has changed the orders six A340-600 aircraft left in the Airbus A330 for the route development. (This article does not state whether the version of the -200 or -300 is selected, however mentioned as a possible destination Vancouver and mentioned that the plane will have the latest-generation entertainment system.) The article states that Airbus has changed six A330 orders to make no more orders A340-600 are left. This makes the magazine speculates that the A350 has been closed making production line A340.

Raptor F 22 The Greatest Fighter Jet Aircraft

F-22 Raptor is a stealth fighter made by the United States. It was originally envisioned as air superiority fighter for use against Soviet aircraft, but the aircraft is equipped for ground attack, electronic warfare and signals intelligence. This aircraft through a long development period, prototype version was named YF-22, three years before it was officially adopted was named F/A-22, and eventually was named the F-22A when it officially came into use in December 2005. Lockheed Martin Aeronautics is the prime contractor is responsible for the majority of the airframe, weapons, and assembling the F-22. Then his partner, Boeing Integrated Defense Systems provides the wings, avionics equipment, and pilot and maintenance training.

History


Advanced Tactical Fighter (ATF) is a contract for the demonstration and validation program by the United States Air Force to develop a new generation air superiority fighter to deal with threats from outside the United States, including the development of class aircraft Su-27 Soviet era.

In 1981, the United States Air Force to map the requirements to be fulfilled a new fighter aircraft that is planned to replace the F-15 Eagle. ATF planned to integrate modern technology such as advanced metal and composite materials, sophisticated control systems, high-powered propulsion systems, and stealth aircraft technology.

Proposals for the contract was filed in 1986, by two contractor teams, the Lockheed-Boeing-General Dynamics and Northrop-McDonnell Douglas, who was elected in October 1986 for the demonstration and validation phase for 50 months, which eventually produced two prototypes, the YF -22 and the YF-23.

The aircraft is planned to be the most advanced U.S. aircraft at the beginning of the 21st century, therefore, this plane is the most expensive fighter aircraft, with a price of U.S. $ 120 million per unit, or U.S. $ 361 million per unit when it is added to the cost of development. In April 2005, the total development cost of this program is U.S. $ 70 billion, causing the number of aircraft planned to be made down to 438, then 381 and now 180, from the initial plan of 750 aircraft. One of the factors causing this reduction is due to the F-35 Lightning II will have the same technology with the F-22, but with a cheaper unit price.

YF-22 'Lightning II'

YF-22 is a plane development is the basis for the manufacture of F-22 production version. However, there are some significant differences between the two, which changes the position of the cockpit, structural changes, and many other small changes. Both aircraft are often mixed up in the photographs, usually at the point of view that is difficult to see certain features. YF-22 Lighting II are given nicknames by Lockheed, this name lasted until the mid-1990s. For some time, this plane also was given the nickname SuperStar and Rapier. But the F-35 and then officially received the name of Lighting II on July 7, 2006.

YF-22 ATF awarded after winning a competition to fly to beat Northrop YF-23 made by McDonnell-Douglas. In April 2002, at the time of testing, the first YF-22 prototype crashed while landing at Edwards Air Force Base in California. The test pilot, Tom Morgenfeld, was not hurt. The cause of this fall is a fault in the software.

Production

F-22 production version first sent to Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, on January 14, 2003. Testing and final evaluation conducted on October 27, 2004. In late 2004, already there are 51 Raptor is sent, with 22 more booked in the 2004 fiscal budget. The destruction of the first production version occurred on December 20, 2004 at the time of takeoff, the pilots eject safely after a few moments before it crashed. Investigating this fall concluded that interruption of power when turned off the engine before take-off causing damage to the controversial system

Change of name

Production version of the aircraft is named the F-22 Raptor when it was first raised on April 9, 1997 at Lockheed-Georgia Co.., Marietta, Georgia.

In September 2002, the United States Air Force officials to change the name of the F/A-22 Raptor. The naming of this, which is similar to the naming of F/A-18 Hornet U.S. Navy, aims to promote the image of Raptor fighter aircraft as well as ground attack aircraft, due to the debate that occurred in the U.S. government about the importance of air superiority fighter that is very expensive. The name is then returned again to the F-22 alone on December 12, 2005, and then on December 15, 2005 F-22A officially began to be used.

Purchase

United States Air Force originally planned to order 750 ATF, with production starting in 1994. In 1990 Major Aircraft Review to change the plan to 648 aircraft beginning in 1996. The ultimate goal changed again in 1994, to 442 aircraft entered the life in 2003 or 2004. Report Ministry of Defence in 1997 to change the purchase to 339. In 2003, the Air Force said that the existing congressional funding restrictions now limit the purchase to 277. In 2006, the Pentagon said it would buy 183 aircraft, which will save $ 15 billion but would increase funding per aircraft. This plan has been approved by the de facto of Congress in the form of purchase plan several years, which is still open opportunities for new orders past that point. Lockheed Martin has said that in FY (Fiscal Year / FY) 2009 they already have to know whether more planes would be purchased, for ordering the goods of long-lead.

In April 2006, the cost of the F-22A estimated by the Government Accountability Office to be $ 361 million per plane. These costs reflect the total cost of the program F-22A total program cost, divided by the number of jets to be purchased by the Air Force. So far, the Air Force has invested as much as $ 28 billion in research, development, and experiments Raptor. That money, referred to as a "sunk cost," has been spent and is separate from money used for future decision making, including the purchase of coffee from the jet.

When all 183 jets have been purchased, $ 34 billion will be spent to purchase these aircraft really are. This will result in cost about $ 339 million per aircraft based on the total cost of the program. The increase in the cost of one additional F-22 is about $ 120 million. If the Air Force would buy 100 additional F-22 today, each plane would cost less than $ 117 million and will continue to fall with additional aircraft purchases.

F-22 is not the most expensive aircraft ever; peculiarity seemed to die on the B-2 Spirit, which is roughly worth $ 2.2 billion per unit, although the cost increases below 1 billion U.S. dollars. For more fair, booking B-2 went from hundreds to a few dozen when the Cold War ended, so the price per unit soar. F-22 uses fewer radar absorbent materials than the B-2 or F-117 Nighthawk, with the hope that treatment costs will be lower.

Characteristic

Movement

Dual turbofan engines Pratt & Whitney F119-PW-100 F-22 has a thrust steering capability. Steering can adjust the rotation axis pitch to about 20 °. Maximum thrust of this engine is still kept secret, but estimated about 35,000 lbf (156 kN) per turbofan. The maximum speed the aircraft is estimated at Mach 1.2 when the supercruise without external weapons. With the afterburner, according to Lockheed Martin, the speed is "more than Mach 2.0" (2120 km / h).

F-22 also can maneuver very well in supersonic and subsonic speeds. The use of steering thrust makes a sharp turn, and perform extreme maneuvers such as Herbst Maneuver, Cobra Pugachev, [10] and Kulbit. F-22 also can maintain a constant attack angle greater than 60 °. Altitude flying also affect the attack. In a military exercise in Alaska in June 2006, F-22 pilots said that the ability to fly at higher altitudes than other aircraft is one of the determinants of the F-22 victory in the practice.

Avionics

F-22 uses AN/APG-77 AESA radar designed for the operation of air superiority and ground attack, which is difficult to detect aircraft opponent, using an active aperture, and can track several targets simultaneously in any weather. AN/APG-77 change frequency 1,000 times every second, making it also very difficult to track. This radar can also focus the emission of the sensor opponent, making the plane to crash opponent.

Information on this radar is processed by two Raytheon processors, each of which can perform 10.5 billion operations per second, and has 300 megabytes of memory. The software on the F-22 consists of 1.7 million lines of code, most of which are captured radar data processing. These radars have a range of about 125-150 miles, and is planned to be updated with a maximum distance of 250 miles.

F-22 has several unique functions for an aircraft its size. Among other things, this aircraft has the capability of detection and identification of an enemy that is almost equivalent to the RC-135 Rivet Joint.Kemampuan "mini-AWACS" This makes the F-22 is very useful on the front lines. This aircraft could indicate targets for the F-15 and F-16, and even to know what the plane was to target his plane, so it could make for his plane did not pursue the same target.

Bus data used aircraft, named MIL-STD-1394b, which is designed specifically for the F-22. Bus system was developed from the commercial system FireWire (IEEE-1394), which was created by Apple and is often found on an Apple Macintosh. Data bus system will also be used on fighter aircraft F-35 Lightning.

Weaponry

F-22 is designed to carry air-to-air missiles are stored internally in the fuselage so as not to interfere with the ability silumannya. Missile launch was preceded by a valve open arms and missiles driven down by the hydraulic system. This aircraft can also carry bombs such as Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) and Small-Diameter Bomb (SDB) is more recent. In addition to internal storage, this aircraft can also carry weapons on four external point, but if it is used will greatly reduce the ability of stealth, speed, and agility. For backup guns, F-22s carry M61A2 Vulcan automatic cannon 20 mm stored in the right side of the plane, was carrying 480 cannon rounds, and will be discharged if fired continuously for about five seconds. Even so, the F-22 can use this gun when the fight without being detected, which will be needed when the missile has been exhausted.

The ability of stealth

Western modern fighter aircraft of today have used the features that make them more difficult to detect on radar than previous aircraft, such as the use of radar absorbing material. In the F-22, besides the use of radar absorbing material, shape and form F-22 is also designed, and other details such as the hook on the plane and pilot helmets have also been made for more hidden. F-22 is also designed to emit infra-red which is more difficult to track missiles "heat seekers".

However, the F-22 does not depend on radar absorbing material such as the F-117 Nighthawk. The use of this material could not bear to bring up the problem because of bad weather. And unlike airplane bomber B-2 Spirit stealth that require special hangars, the F-22 can be given usual care in the hangar. In addition, the F-22 also has a system called "Signature Assessment System", which will indicate when the aircraft radar tracks already high, until eventually require repairs and maintenance.

Use of afterburner also make aircraft emissions more easily captured by the radar, it is estimated is the reason why the F-22 is focused to be able to have the ability supercruise.

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